Document Type : علمی - پژوهشی


1 University of Tehran

2 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad


Extended Abstract


Urban populations throughout the world have grown following the industrial revolution. Population growth alongside the intensive development of cities during the past few decades have resulted in numerous issues such as dissociation between the city and nature, air and noise pollution, and traffic. Today, it is expressed that one of the necessities for compact cities is to bring nature in urban areas so as to reduce mental pressures as well as pollutions, which is called biophilic urban planning (Ziari , Zargham Fard, & Khademi, 2016). As an important principle for the design and planning of constructions, biophilic urban planning includes a set of natural design features, which are able to respond to various urban problems such as climate change, population growth, restricted resources, and humans’ inherent need to communicate with nature (Newman, Hargrous, & Desha, 2012).
As the capital of Iran and the largest city of the country, Tehran suffers from different types of pollution. It is predicted that biophilic planning could mitigate a part of the city’s environmental problems. Consequently, given the absence of recognition and planning for such a scheme in Iran, the general purpose of this study is to draw a biophilic planning and design pattern for implementation in cities, especially the dense and compact cities in this country. Among the 22 districts of Tehran, district 14 is known as one of the densest regions with high levels of pollution and degradation, suffering from a myriad of environmental problems; subsequently, this district was selected as the region to examine in the present study.


In terms of data collection, the present inquiry is a descriptive-analytical study. Given the use of questionnaires, it is also considered as a survey study. The tool used for data collection in the study is researcher-made questionnaires. To this end, after conducting theoretical studies and editing the literature and background of the study, a questionnaire with Likert scale questions was designed. The specified indices and patterns were given to 10 urban planning experts,10 urban environment critics of universities across Tehran, municipalities of district14 in Tehran, and 10 urban designers. The data collected in this study were then analyzed using software including SPSS, GIS, Expert Choice, and Excel.


In this study, first it was attempted to rank the 22 districts of Tehran in terms of biophilic planning priorities using VIKOR multiple criteria decision-making method.
In order to indicate the decision-making indices, the features of pioneering cities in the world in this area as well as the research conducted at the worldwide level including the works of Beatley (1995-2013) and Beatley, Newman & Boyer(2009), sophisticated global planners in this field, were studied; ultimately, 7 main indices were obtained. The results showed that districts 11, 12, and 14 of this city involve the highest priorities and districts 2, 21, 5, 1 and 19 involve the lowest priorities for biophilic planning among the 22 districts of Tehran.
The purpose in the next section of the study was to indicate implementable patterns in this district; to this end, first, it was attempted to determine patterns and 40 executive strategies of this type of planning in various sources including the works of Beatley (1995-2013) and Beatley, Newman & Boyer (2009). Then, the items were given to the experts of the study who are familiar with Tehran and the intended district in the form of questionnaires. Next, the proper patterns for biophilic planning in this district were identified. The results of this section led to the recognition of implementable indices in district 14, given the region’s economic, social, cultural, and environmental conditions.


In this study, it was attempted to draw a set of patterns for biophilic planning in Tehran and district 14 of this city, which is one of the dense and compact cities of Iran. Furthermore, it was attempted to present a set of practical strategies for implementing such type of planning in this district with respect to its economic, sociocultural, and physical conditions. According to the findings of the study, it can be concluded that this district in Tehran entails a proper capability and potential for biophilic planning due to its distressed texture. Many of the biophilic planning patterns could be predicted and implemented during the stages of resuscitation and revitalization of these textures.
Another conclusion that could be drawn from this study is that in order to implement biophilic planning in this district (as well as the entire city of Tehran), it is required to conduct studies and draw projects and proper plans so as to transfer and enhance the techniques and technologies of the biophilic industry (such as green walls and ceilings) from pioneering cities in this area at a global level to this district along with their adaptation to geographical, climate, and cultural contexts of this district. In this study, it was shown that taking into account the rights of owners as well as offering encouragements when exploiting their rights is a necessity for implementing biophilic planning in this district. Surveys conducted in the area of biophilic urban planning in the district demonstrated that economic discussions are not solely sufficient for such plans while social and spatial backgrounds, innovations and global experiences in this area are also required. These experiences emphasize the significance of beautification and increasing the livability of cities as well as reducing immeasurable urban challenges.
On the other hand, by comparing the results of this study with similar, valid research at the global level, it can be asserted that many of the better aspects of biophilic planning could not be implemented in many cities of the country as result of weaknesses in theoretic, scientific, and technologic dimensions as well as insufficient infrastructures and financial resources allocated to environmental problems throughout Iranian cities. This is particularly apparent when compared to pioneering cities in the world, which have only begun stepping into this path; a path that requires neglecting the routines in Iranian cities and paying attention to superior aspects of the citizens’ lives.


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