Document Type : Original Article


1 Assistant professor of Sport Management, Faculty of sport sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.

2 Ph.D in Sport Management, Faculty of sport sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Mazandaran, Iran. Corresponding Author

3 Ph.D. Student of Sport Management, Faculty of sport sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran


The importance of sports in attracting tourists, capital and also promoting the status of the city is very remarkable; however, the potential for sport branding has not been materialized in many cities in developing countries. Thus, the main question remains here is what factors are needed to brand cities through sports. To this end, the present study was conducted with the aim of validating the urban-sport branding questionnaire. This study is of the applied type in terms of purpose; it is descriptive-analytical in terms of methodology and also qualitative-quantitative in terms of the nature of its data. The research instrument used was the modified version of a questionnaire developed by Noori and Kalateh (2017). The statistical population of this study consisted of faculty members in the domains of sport management, city marketing, geography, and urban planning as well as sports managers, faculty members specialized in branding and marketing, urban managers (municipal and provincial), sports coaches, and sports champions, and also faculty members in our neighboring countries with experiences in branding who had traveled to Iran several times. The study used purposeful and convenience sampling method. In the second stage (interview) after theoretical saturation and in the third stage, 21 and 18 individuals were selected for the research sample, respectively. Finally, the items were prepared in a questionnaire which was later submitted to a group of experts. The results showed that the urban-sport branding questionnaire has 6 dimensions, 16 categories, and 76 indicators. Given the importance of urban branding through sports, city managers and policy makers can identify potential cities and increase the city's influence, credibility and development by considering these factors.


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